From capitalising on the green energy revolution to carbon-free portfolios or supporting local business to targeting tobacco or weapons producers—investors are increasingly asking the industry to tailor portfolios to their environmental, social, and governance (ESG) preferences, while anticipating unmeasurable risks.

This paper introduces a methodology for evaluating the range of outcomes certain exclusions might foster. We explore the inflection point of excluding ‘too much’ and evaluate the impact of reallocating excluded security weights.

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